Features and characteristics

Pigeon pea is a perennial legume from family fabaceae. It is drought resistant and with high yields. It is resistant to many diseases and pests.


  • There are a lot of varieties of pigeon peas which are short medium and long duration. The maturity for these varieties is 120 -150 days, 150 -180 days and 220 – 270 days for the short, medium and long duration varieties respectively.
  • All these crops are planted during the first rains (November or December).


  • Nutritionally pigeon peas contain high levels of protein
  • Economically they are processed into dhal and exported to other countries to generate forex
  • Agronomical they are grown in intercrop with cereal crops where they have the capacity to improve soil nitrogen
  • Pigeon peas leaves are used for animal feed
  • The stem can be used for firewood

Role and Status in Malawi Export:

Malawi is one of the major producers of pigeon peas. The crop is processed into dhal in the country and it is then exported. This allows generation of forex.

Pigeon peas Producers

The main growers of pigeon peas are smallholder farmers.

Location, Topography

Pigeon peas grow in semi arid tropics and the southern part of Malawi, where the crop is mostly grown.

Production and Supply Capacity

Malawi is one of the major producers of pigeon peas in Africa. Malawi’s share of pigeon peas production accounts for about 6%, followed by Kenya (2%), Uganda (2%) and then Africa (0.8%). Globally, the largest producer of pigeon peas is India, with close to 70% percent of world production. Myanmar follows, producing more than 20% of global production. Africa accounts for the majority of the remaining production

Features and characteristics:

  • Macadamia (scientific name is Macadamia integrifolia) is a sub-tropical evergreen tree from the World perspective.
  • The Malawi Macadamia nut has an outstanding texture and creamy taste with a white appearance. It also has high oil content.


Varieties of Macadamia nuts grown in Malawi are:

  • M. Integrifolia. This is used in Malawi as a Scion stock.
  • M. Tetraphylla. This is used as a Rootstock in Malawi.
  • KEAU
  • KAU


  • The kernel is eaten raw or roasted as a desert, it is used to make oil, cosmetics, sinjiro and also as a confectionery. The by-products are an excellent source of animal feed, the shell and the wood is also a good source of fuel and finally the husks make a good plant growing media.
  • Macadamia nuts are rich source of energy. They are packed with numerous healthy benefits nutrients minerals, anti oxidants and vitamins that are essential for optimum health and wellness. In addition, our Macadamia nuts are gluten free.
  • These features make our Macadamia nuts highly demanded. In addition macadamia nuts are one of the key export products

Features and characteristics:

  • Malawi groundnuts have different sizes and colours in respective to the varieties
  • Generally groundnuts grown in Malawi are characterised with high yielding virginia bunch


  • Charimbana
  • CG7/Red skins (ICGV-SM 90704 (Nsinjiro))
  • JL 24 (kakoma)
  • IGC 12991 (Baka)
  • Chalimbana
  • Chatimbana
  • Mawanga
  • Manipintar
  • RG1


  • Groundnuts groundnut fixes atmospheric nitrogen in soils and thus improves soil fertility and saves fertilizer costs in subsequent crops,
  • Groundnuts form an important component of both rural and urban diet through the provision of valuable protein, edible oil, fats, energy, minerals, and vitamins.
  • In livestock-farming communities, groundnut can be used as a source of livestock feed and increases livestock productivity as the groundnut haulm and seed cake are rich in digestible crude protein content

Role and Status in Malawi Export:

  • 10 percent of the total production is exported
  • Malawi share of Groundnuts exports to the world has been increasing over the period of the last five years. In 2013 Malawi share of exports grew to 2.6% from 1.4 % in 2012.

Groundnuts Producers

  • Smallholder Farmers
  • Afrinut (NASFAM)

Location, Topography

  • The central and southern region Agricultural Development Divisions (ADDs) of Kasungu, Lilongwe, Machinga and Blantyre accounts for 75% of the total groundnuts production area.
  • Groundnuts is mainly a rain fed crop

Production and Supply Capacity

  • The production of groundnuts has had an upward trend from 275,000 MT in 2009 to 380,000 MT in 2013.
  • The increase can be attributed to the adoption of new varieties by the smallholders. Malawi has excess production capacity as it is only depending on rain fed system. If this capacity can be exploited there will be excess supply capacity.


Standard specifications for cashew kernels for export have been laid down by Exporters and traders.


Cashew Kernels are graded into white/scorched wholes,pieces,splits,butts etc.. depending on the shape,size & colour of the kernel.The Govt.of India Act prescribes 33 different grades of cashew kernels. Only 26 grades are commercially available and exported. They are:

  • W - 180, is the ' King of Cashew ' - They are larger in size and very expensive.
  • W - 210, are popularly known as ' Jumbo ' nuts.
  • W - 240, it is an attractive grade which is reasonably priced.
  • W - 320, are the most popular among cashew kernels and highest in terms of availability, worldwide.
  • W - 450, are the smallest and cheapest white whole kernels and hence the favorite among low priced whole grades.
Scorched wholes are another grade of cashew kernels, which have a slight brown colour due to longer roasting. They have all the other characteristics of white kernels and have the same nutritional qualities.
Butts, splits and pieces are priced lower and are ideal for cooking, preparation of sweets and savoury snacks.

Terms and Conditions

Quality Control and Pre-shipment Inspection

Exports of goods from are normally subject to voluntary quality control and pre-shipment inspection. Inspection of goods is being conducted under the consignment-wise inspection. It is ensured that the product is processed and packed as per the standards prescribed, by drawing samples from the finished product.

Packing and Standard Weight

Cashew kernels in bulk are packed in four gallon prime tins with a net weight of 11.34 Kg (Or 25 lbs) in each tin. The filled tins are then vacuumised and filled with carbon-di-oxide gas and sealed. Two such tins of the same grade are packed in a carton for export. The net weight of each carton is thus 22.68 Kg. (50 lbs.). Some manufacturers also pack in tins of 10kg net to suit the requirements of buyers in certain markets. Recently,some exporters have started using flexible packs instead of tins as many buyers opt for new generation flexible packs.

Contract Terms

  1. Contracts are normally made on FOB or C&F basis.
  2. Pricing in international trade in cashew is in US Dollars per lb. Current and forward price quotations in US $ and other currencies are available on request directly from member exporters of the Council.
  3. Business in cashew is done on an offer and acceptance basis between buyers and sellers by email, telex or cable, since the prices are subject to frequent fluctuations.
  4. The cost of insurance is borne by the buyer.
  5. At the time of contract, the month of shipment, grade, price etc., are to be clearly indicated. Sometimes, exporters offer commodity for shipments upto six months in advance.
  6. Export dealings are usually finalised on the basis of the opening of 100% irrevocable Letter of Credit by the buyer in favour of the shipper. The LC is opened immediately on execution of contract or one month prior to shipment.

Shipping Specifications

The overall dimensions of a carton are about:

Length 490mm
Breadth 240mm
Height 350mm
Overall volume 0. 041 Cu. M/Carton.

Shipments from India, Africa or Fare-East are mainly in 2Oft. containers. Requests for less than a container load are also accepted by exporters. Freight is charged per Cubic Metre on volume basis. Freight for full container load is fixed and the same is cheaper than the freight for part container load (LCL).

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